b) Go to pp. 141 in B & D text. Answer the three questions on p. 141 (min. 250 words) and connect your responses to your own Evaluation Report project where possible.
- What are the differences between qualitative and quantitative data?
The terms qualitative data and quantitative data not only refer to the techniques for collecting data, but also to the data themselves. Qualitative data focuses more on the meaning of the data through narratives rather than numbers which is what quantitative data focuses on. Qualitative data can be collected using sources such as observations, surveys, interviews. Tests, counts, measures, and instruments are different data sources used to collect quantitative data. For my project, the evaluation of the Fun Run fundraiser, I will be able to use both qualitative and quantitative data. The surveys given to the stakeholders will be used to collect qualitative data. The data I gather from the funds raised compared with the overall expenses from the project will be the quantitative data. Since my project is objective based, the quantitative data will show if the project met the objective or not. The qualitative data can be used to determine areas that need improved and areas that are working well for future fundraisers.
- What are the levels of data that you might encounter?
There are four levels of data that an evaluator might encounter. The first level is Nominal Data which are based on only one principal where the order is meaningless. The second level is Ordinal Data is also based on one principal, but with a ranked order. The third level is Interval Data. Interval Data has the same characteristic of rank order, but involve equal intervals. Ratio Data is the fourth level and possesses all the characteristics of the first three, but include a zero point. When thinking about my project, I may encounter all of these levels in some way or another. However, since the objective of my project is based on the results of the quantitative data collected, the focus will be on the Interval Data and Ratio Data.
- What are some instruments that you might use or develop?
There are several instruments that may be used to collect data. They may include interviews, scales, sentence completion, tests, and observational analysis. I will use surveys that will include scales such as the Likert scale. I also may use the sentence completion technique where the Likert scale isn’t the best option.
c) Go to p. 165 in B & D text. Answer the three questions (min. 250 words. (Don’t concern yourself about the “answer these questions in two ways” section). Be sure to label your three responses as 1, 2, and 3 (automatic 1 point deduction for not labeling). Then connect your responses to your Evaluation Report project then by doing the exercise at the bottom of p. 165 (completely fill-in the Exhibit 1.1 chart — in a chart format only — from p. 18). — OR use an alternative submission format as has been offered in previous assignments.
- What are data?
Data is typically thought of as the numerical figures presented in the form of graphs or tables. There are several other forms of data. The responses to interview questions are considered data in a narrative form. Scales from surveys and the counts or narrative results from observations are also different forms of data. I will use the data I collect and present it using graphs or tables in my report. However, my data will not just be numerical. I plan on presenting the results from the scales included in the surveys in graphs, but also in narrative form.
- What are the main terms evaluators need to know in order to analyze data?
The main terms evaluators need to know in order to analyze data are statistics, measures of control tendency which include the mode, the mean, and the median, measures of variability including ranges, quartiles, and percentiles, and standard deviation and variance.
- How do mean, median, and mode (measures of central tendency) offer different perspectives on data sets?
Using the mean, median, and mode is a good way to discuss a group as a whole. They offer different perspectives on data sets. One measure is the mode. The mode is the number that occurs most often in data results. The mode is typically what is used when working with nominal data. For example, if a scale is used to collect data, the mode can easily show what answer was chosen the most often. When using the mode, the order of the data does not matter. The mean, or average, is another measure used. The mean is used when the data results are numerical such as test scores. Again, there is no rank in the data collected. The final measure used is the median. The median is the middle point in a set of data. In this case, the order does matter. The median is typically used with ordinal data.
|Evaluation Questions||Activities to Observe||Data Source||Population Sample Design||Data Collection||Responsibility||Data Analysis||Audience|
|Was the fundraising goal reached in order to fund projects/functions?||-Visually documenting how much money is being turned in with individual classroom posters and a school wide poster in the lunchroom to continue to encourage and motivate students.||-Quantitative data collection:
-Total money earned.
-The records of funds available for projects and functions before the fundraiser and then after the fundraiser.
|Accessing the records of the budget allotted for projects and fundraisers as well as surveying students/teachers to find out what projects and functions are/have been funded by the fundraiser.||The qualitative data will be collected following the completion of the fundraiser. The quantitative data will be collected using surveys with scales and sentence completion methods.||The evaluator will be responsible to perform these evaluation activity.||At the completion of collecting the data, the evaluator will analyze and interpret the data to see if the goal of the fundraiser was reached.||-The results of the evaluation will be shared with staff members, the principal, and any parents who would like to see it.
-The students will benefit from the results when their projects and functions are funded.
d) Bonus (voluntary): If you find another tutorial or video site specific to either “data sources” or “data analysis” and submit the URL and a 5-7 sentence description (similar to what you’d do in the voluntary extra credit Internet Sites Project), you can earn 2 bonus points.
The tutorial website that I found on data analysis is through Brain POP. The URL is https://www.brainpop.com/math/dataanalysis/statistics/. This particular address is for a tutorial on Statistics. The website offers an educational video, quiz, and activities about statistics. There is a link for lesson ideas and a way to create a quiz. There is also a related topics tab at the bottom of the page which offers links to other tutorials including one on Mean, Median, Mode, and Range. You do need a subscription and login to access Brain POP.